Department of Philosophy

College of Arts and Sciences
Department of Philosophy
320 Bowman Hall
Kent Campus
330-672-2315
philo@kent.edu
www.kent.edu/philosophy


 

 

 

Undergraduate Programs

Minors

Graduate Programs

Department of Philosophy Faculty

  • Barnbaum, Deborah R. (1997), Professor and Department Chair, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts-Amherst, 1996
  • Byron, B. Michael (1997), Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1996
  • Garchar, Kimberly K. (2008), Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of Oregon, 2006
  • Ikuenobe, Polycarp A. (1997), Professor, Ph.D., Wayne State University, 1993
  • Kim, Jung-Yeup (2008), Assistant Professor, Ph.D., University of Hawaii-Manoa, 2008
  • Norton-Smith, Thomas M. (1985), Professor, Ph.D., University of Illinois-Urbana, 1988
  • Odell-Scott, David W. (1990), Professor and Associate College Dean, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 1989
  • Palmer, Daniel E. (2001), Associate Professor, Ph.D., Purdue University, 2000
  • Pereplyotchik, David (2013), Assistant Professor, Ph.D., State University of New York-City College, 2012
  • Ryan, Frank X. (1997), Associate Professor, Ph.D., Emory University, 1996
  • Smith, Deborah C. (1997), Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of Washington, 2003
  • Uher, Clarence G. (1993), Associate Lecturer, M.A., Cleveland State University, 1991
  • Williams, Linda L. (1990), Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of California-Riverside, 1983
  • Zavota, Gina (2003), Associate Professor, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2003

Philosophy (PHIL)

PHIL 11001     INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY (DIVG) (KHUM)      3 Credit Hours

An introduction to the diverse methods and subject matters in philosophy. Topics may include: What are the arguments for the existence of God? Do humans have free will? Can we know anything with certainty, and how do we know anything at all? Is what we see real, or might it be only an illusion? What makes a person a person - their mind, or their physical attributes? Is the mind the brain, or is it something else?

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Global, Kent Core Humanities, TAG Arts and Humanities, Transfer Module Humanities

PHIL 11009     CRITICAL THINKING (KADL)      3 Credit Hours

Critical thinking is essential to every aspect of life, whether reading a news report or editorial, examining a contract or other legal document, or entering into a debate. This course teaches the strategies of “cognitive self-defense” that allow students to see past false claims and avoid being deceived by misleading rhetorical strategies. The course also examines the role of argument in reasoning, including types of arguments and the ways in which mistakes in reasoning can lead us astray. Examples from everyday life illustrate the sorts of complex reasoning that are a crucial part of practical decision-making.

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Kent Core Additional

PHIL 21001     INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS (DIVG) (KHUM)      3 Credit Hours

What makes an action morally right or morally wrong, and who gets to decide? Is ethics about performing actions that are morally right, or is it about being a virtuous person? This course examines at least three competing theories about ethics, including challenges to each theory. Students get to decide which theory they think is best, but every theory presents its own strengths and weaknesses.

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Global, Kent Core Humanities, TAG Arts and Humanities, Transfer Module Humanities

PHIL 21002     INTRODUCTION TO FORMAL LOGIC (KMCR)      3 Credit Hours

This course is designed to sharpen students' reasoning skills and to help them better understand the structure of reasoning in general. To do this, it introduces students to some formal languages, such as Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic, that represent the logical structure of deductive reasoning. Unlike natural languages such as English, these formal languages allow students to focus on the general structure of different types of arguments, without discussing the content of any particular argument. Course covers both the construction of formal proofs in these languages, and translation between them and English. The study of formal logic contributes to effective and persuasive reasoning, not only in philosophy, but in any discipline or context. It also provides effective tools for evaluating the strength of English-language arguments. The skills that students acquire in this course are thus widely applicable in their personal, professional and academic lives.

Prerequisite: Minimum 35 ALEKS math score; or minimum 22 ACT math score; or minimum 530 SAT math score; or minimum C grade in MATH 00022.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Kent Core Mathematics and Critical Reasoning, Transfer Module Mathematics

PHIL 30015     MEDICINE AND MORALITY      3 Credit Hours

A philosophical exploration of at least three issues related to current medical practices, which may include ethical, religious, legal and clinical aspects. Topics may include: abortion, the use of genetic technologies, organ donation and transplantation, the use of human research subjects, or end-of-life decision-making.

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 30025     ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS      3 Credit Hours

A philosophical examination of ethical issues in environmental studies, including topics such as: animal ethics and the sources of our food; the value of nature and environmental aesthetics; sustainability and biodiversity; ecofeminism, social justice and radical ecology; and the human response to climate change. The course is designed to complement fields of study such as geography, environmental studies and biology.

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 31001     ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Examination of Greek thought from its inception through Plato, Aristotle, and later philosophers who were greatly influenced by them, but who also challenged their views. The ancients made the move from explanation based on myth to philosophical explanation - what did that move involve? How did the ancients answer questions about the nature of reality, what exists, the reliability of the senses, and the types of things in the world? How did they conceive of the good life?

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009 or PHIL 21002 or PHIL 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001 or PHIL 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31002     MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Examination of issues in medieval thought, such as the existence and nature of God, the relationship between faith and reason, the problem of universals, and the nature of causality. Selections from philosophers such as Augustine, Boethius, Aquinas, Abelard, Avicenna, Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham.

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009 or PHIL 21002 or PHIL 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001 or PHIL 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31003     CONTINENTAL RATIONALISM (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Selections from rationalists such as Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. The rationalists believed that the nature of reality was best understood using rational thought alone. What did they mean by this, and how did this belief shape their wider views of the world?

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009 or PHIL 21002 or PHIL 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001 or PHIL 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31004     BRITISH EMPIRICISM (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Selections from British Empiricists such as Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. The empiricists believed that reality was best understood using sensory evidence and observational methods. What do these human investigations tell us about the nature of properties, existence, and causation?

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009 or PHIL 21002 or PHIL 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001 or PHIL 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31005     GERMAN CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Selections from philosophers such as Kant, Fichte, and others who began the movement known as German idealism. These thinkers emphasized a turn towards mind as constructing the world as it appears to us.

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009 or PHIL 21002 or PHIL 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001 or PHIL 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31006     NINETEENTH-CENTURY PHILOSOPHY (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Nineteenth-century philosophy is primarily a response to German idealism. Questions in social and political philosophy, as well as in metaphysics and epistemology, are considered in the works of philosophers such as Hegel, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Marx, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche.

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009, 21002, 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001, 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31010     TWENTIETH-CENTURY PHILOSOPHY (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Selections from representatives of the most influential schools of thought within twentieth-century philosophy; for example, existentialists such as Sartre, pragmatists such as Dewey, logical positivists such as Carnap, phenomenologists such as Heidegger, and post-structuralists such as Derrida.

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009 or PHIL 21002 or PHIL 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001 or PHIL 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31020     AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY (WIC)      3 Credit Hours

Selections from principal American philosophers from colonial times to the present, such as Emerson, Peirce, William James, Dewey, Quine, and Martin Luther King. American philosophy reflects the historic values of liberty, enterprise, industry, practicality, and diversity interwoven in the fabric of American life.

Prerequisite: At least one of PHIL 11009, 21002, 41038; and at least one of PHIL 11001, 21001.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Writing Intensive Course

PHIL 31030     EXISTENTIALISM      3 Credit Hours

Examination of the themes of existentialism, which include absurdity, freedom, and the individual's relationship to the world. Philosophers studied may include Sartre, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Camus, de Beauvoir, Ortega y Gasset, Marcel, and Tillich. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy (PHIL) course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 31035     PHILOSOPHY AND JUSTICE (DIVD)      3 Credit Hours

Consideration of topics and issues relevant to the concept of justice, as addressed by a range of classical and contemporary philosophers. Topics may include the nature of justice from feminist, libertarian, liberal, socialist, communitarian, egalitarian, and social welfare perspectives; and the application of these perspectives to practical issues such as affirmative action, democracy, equal pay, environmental justice, just war, criminal justice, civil disobedience, tort law and poverty. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy [PHIL] course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Domestic

PHIL 31040     WOMEN AND PHILOSOPHY (DIVD)      3 Credit Hours

This course philosophically investigates topics, ideas, and events that are relevant to the study of women’s issues and gender theory. Topics may include the ways in which the history of philosophy has shaped our understanding of the role of women in society and gender more broadly; the ways in which women philosophers have shaped questions and issues regarding gender and their own treatment; and philosophical approaches to the ways that gender issues are manifest in contemporary society, such as pay inequality, rape culture, childcare and parenting, sexuality, and what it means to be a woman. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy [PHIL] course should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in philosophy [PHIL].

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Domestic

PHIL 31060     PHILOSOPHY OF ART AND BEAUTY      3 Credit Hours

Investigation of concepts such as the artistic object and creative expression, and examination and critique of a range of theories designed to solve various problems in the field of aesthetics, or the study of the nature and principles of artistic beauty. Examples drawn from diverse genres such as the visual arts, drama, music, and dance provide the context for discussion of topics including what makes something beautiful and what is involved in an act of creativity. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy (PHIL) course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 31070     AFRICAN AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN PHILOSOPHIES (DIVD)      3 Credit Hours

(Cross-listed with PAS 30010) Exploration of philosophical issues in African and African-American or Black thoughts systems. Topics may include the examination of the issue of the existence of a Black philosophy, the nature of traditional African knowledge, beliefs about personhood, the basis and rationality of witchcraft or other metaphysical beliefs, communalism, the nature of Black moral and aesthetic values, and contemporary analysis of race, racism, slavery, civil rights, pan-Africanism, and criticisms of colonialism, Black development, democratic governance and social policies regarding Blacks. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy (PHIL) course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Domestic

PHIL 31072     AMERICAN INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES (DIVD)      3 Credit Hours

Examination of philosophical issues and themes in American Indian world views with attention given to the reflections of contemporary native scholars. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy [PHIL] course should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: one course in philosophy [PHIL].

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Domestic

PHIL 31075     PHILOSOPHY AND MULTICULTURALISM (DIVG)      3 Credit Hours

Philosophical examination of various approaches to multiculturalism, in terms of definitions, justifications and relevant alternative views regarding the scope and nature of multiculturalism. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy (PHIL) course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: one course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

Attributes: Diversity Global

PHIL 31080     FOUNDATIONS IN THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Cross-listed with HIST 31500) An introduction to the study of science as a social, cultural, and historical phenomenon with an emphasis on the history of science primarily in western civilization since 1500 and the major philosophical approaches to science developed in the twentieth century.

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 32091     SEMINAR: PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTIONS      3 Credit Hours

Junior-level seminar with variable topics of philosophical interest. Please check the departmental website or contact the instructor regarding each semester's topic. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy [PHIL] course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 40005     HEALTH CARE ETHICS      3 Credit Hours

Ethical problems in health care critically assessed, and consideration of how these specific ethical problems illuminate the ethical enterprise. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy (PHIL) course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: one course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 40093     VARIABLE TITLE WORKSHOP IN PHILOSOPHY      1-6 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit)S/u graded.

Prerequisite: Permission.

Schedule Type: Workshop

Contact Hours: 1-6 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory

PHIL 41010     PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51010) Philosophical examination of issues and problems presented by various writers in philosophy of religion. Prerequisite: one of the following: PHIL 31001 or PHIL 31002 or PHIL 31003 or PHIL 31004 or PHIL 31005 or PHIL 31006 or PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41020     SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51020) Critical examination of classical and contemporary philosophical theories of the nature of society, and the state as political system that best represents a well-organized society. Topics may include the nature, existence, and justification of the state, the issue of political obligation, theories of anarchism, utopia, democracy, liberalism, communitarianism, citizenship, and patriotism, and examination of the nature of the social and political values or notions of rights, equality, and liberty.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41025     PHILOSOPHY OF LAW      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51025) Critical examination of the nature, features, foundation, and function of law. Topics may include the debate between natural law theory and legal positivism, with respect to whether law and moral are necessarily connected, as well as the nature of judicial decision, constitution interpretation, the basis and elements of criminal, civil law (contract, tort) law, the grounds for obeying or disobeying bad laws, and analysis of some supreme court cases which raise philosophical issues about the nature and function of law.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001 or PHIL 31002 or PHIL 31003 or PHIL 31004 or PHIL 31005 or PHIL 31006 or PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41030     ETHICAL THEORY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51030) In this course, students will explore developments in the dominant normative theories of 20th and 21st century Anglo-American ethics, including consequentialism, deontology, virtue ethics, ethics of care, and varieties of contract theory.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010, or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41035     PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51035) What is science? What are its distinctive aims and methods, and how do they bolster the epistemic authority of scientific theories? Do sociological, historical, and cultural factors play a major role in the advancement of scientific thought? These questions, and others like them, define the philosophy of science - a branch of philosophy that deals with the metaphysical, epistemological, and normative issues that arise in the study of scientific practice.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41036     PHILOSOPHY OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51036) In this course, students focus on issues at the interface of philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. These fields, which comprise contemporary cognitive science, present the philosopher with an opportunity to clarify foundational concepts, such as computation, innateness, language, perception, and learning. Ultimately, the goal of the course is to understand various proposals about how neural computation could amount to human intelligence and consciousness.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001 or PHIL 31002 or PHIL 31003 or PHIL 31004 or PHIL 31005 or PHIL 31006 or PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41037     RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51037) An investigation of the work of the most important European philosophers of the 15th-17th centuries, with a particular emphasis on the interrelation between philosophy and science in their thought, and on the influence of Greek philosophy on the intellectual life of the time.

Prerequisite: PHIL 31001 or PHIL 31002 or PHIL 31003 or PHIL 31004 or PHIL 31005 or PHIL 31006 or PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41038     INTERMEDIATE LOGIC      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51038; Cross-listed with CS 41038 and MATH 41038 and MATH 51038) A detailed, systematic study of symbolic logic for philosophy majors, mathematics majors, computer science majors, and anyone else interested in advanced study in logic. The aim of the course is twofold: first, to develop a facility in understanding and using symbolic logic for various purposes, and second, to understand and appreciate symbolic logic as an area of study in itself. Topics include the distinction between syntactic, object-level proofs and semantic, meta-level proofs, the distinction between axiomatic systems and natural deduction systems of object-level proofs, various systems of modal logic, and some non-classical logics. Students with junior standing or above, who have not taken a Philosophy (PHIL) course, should contact the department for a prerequisite override.

Prerequisite: One course in Philosophy (PHIL).

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41040     EPISTEMOLOGY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51040) What is the difference between merely believing something to be the case and knowing it to be the case? In this course students examine various theories designed to answer this question and evaluate their respective strengths and weaknesses. The course will cover the Gettier problem that questions the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, the debate between foundationalism and coherentism, the debate between internalism and externalism about justification, naturalized epistemology, and virtue epistemology.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010, or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41042     METAPHYSICS      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51042) Covers several topics in contemporary analytic metaphysics. Topics may include existence, identity, things and their persistence over time, the nature of modalities and possible worlds, and the relationship between material parts and wholes.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001 or PHIL 31002 or PHIL 31003 or PHIL 31004 or PHIL 31005 or PHIL 31006 or PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41045     METALOGIC      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51045; Cross-listed with CS 41045 and CS 51045 and MATH 41045 and MATH 51045) A detailed, systematic study of metalogic for philosophy majors, mathematics majors, computer science majors, and anyone else interested in advanced study in logic. Topics include the soundness and completeness of the propositional and predicate calculi, the decidablility of propositional calculus, the undecidability of predicate calculus, Gödel’s incompleteness proof for languages capable of expressing arithmetic, the co-extensionality of the set of general recursive functions, abacus computable functions, and Turing computable functions, and the philosophical motivations for the ChurchTuring Thesis that all computable functions are Turing computable.

Prerequisite: PHIL 41038.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41048     METAETHICS      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51048) Metaethics is the study of the nature and justification of moral judgments, as distinct from ethics, which aims to articulate principles, criteria, or alternative approaches to understanding and achieving goodness and right action. Metaethics examines the concepts, ontology, psychology, and modes of justification employed within ethics. This course will explore recent developments about such questions as: which, if any, ethical judgments can be true or false; whether we can know true ethical statements; and to what kinds of properties, if any, ethical judgments and beliefs refer.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010, or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41050     ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51040) Focuses on the history and continued evolution of analytic philosophy. Readings include works by philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, Schlick, Carnap, Ryle, Austin, Strawson, Grice, Quine, Davidson, Kripke, Putnam, and others. The aim of the course is (i) to understand the theses and themes that commonly arise in analytic philosophy, their philosophical motivations, and the problems they face, and (ii) to become familiar with the methodologies used by analytic philosophers including (but not limited to) logical analysis, appeals to ordinary language, the use of thought experiments, and the use of possible world semantics.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001 or PHIL 31002 or PHIL 31003 or PHIL 31004 or PHIL 31005 or PHIL 31006 or PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41055     PHENOMENOLOGY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51055) In-depth study of the phenomenological movement in twentieth-century philosophy, from its origin in the thought of Edmund Husserl and his contemporaries, through such canonical thinkers as Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, to various contemporary developments. Substantial time is also devoted to considering applications of phenomenology to various disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and arts. This is in keeping with the overall focus in this seminar on phenomenology not only as a philosophical school, but also as a methodology with broad and diverse applications.

Prerequisite: One of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41060     PRAGMATISM      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51060) As America’ s distinctive “home-grown” philosophy, pragmatism embodies the values of action, problem-solving, and consensus-building within a pluralistic society. The core of this course examines the seminal works of the classical American pragmatists: Peirce, James, and Dewey. Special attention will be devoted to a phenomenology of experience that undercuts the dualisms of mind and matter, subject and object, self and world.

Prerequisite: one of the following courses: PHIL 31001, PHIL 31002, PHIL 31003, PHIL 31004, PHIL 31005, PHIL 31006, PHIL 31010 or PHIL 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41065     PLATO      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51065) Detailed examination of selected Platonic dialogues, with some attention to Plato's development and dismissal of certain pre-Socratic (and Socratic) themes.

Prerequisite: one of the following - PHIL 31001, 31002, 31003, 31004, 31005, 31006, 31010 or 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41070     ARISTOTLE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51070) Detailed examination of selected works of Aristotle, with some attention given to Aristotle's development and dismissal of certain pre-Socratic and Platonic themes.

Prerequisite: one of the following - PHIL 31001, 31002, 31003, 31004, 31005, 31006, 31010 or 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41076     CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51076) Investigation of some figure, issue or theme in continental philosophy from Descartes to present.

Prerequisite: one of the following - PHIL 31001, 31002, 31003, 31004, 31005, 31006, 31010 or 31020.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41080     PHILOSOPHY AND ART IN THE MODERN AGE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51080) Exploring, with emphasis on the modern age, philosophical conceptions of art in their interplays with, especially, practicing artists' attitudes toward theory.

Prerequisite: None.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41091     SEMINAR IN WORLD PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51091) (Repeatable for a maximum of 3 credit hours) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues from traditions outside the Western canon.

Prerequisite: PHIL 310001 or 31002 or 31003 or 31004 or 31005 or 31006 or 31010 or 31020.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41491     SEMINAR IN ASIAN PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51491) (Repeatable a maximum of 2 times) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues from traditions in Asian philosophy.

Prerequisite: at least one of PHIL 31001 or 31002 or 31003 or 31004 or 31005 or 31006 or 31010 or 31020.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 41591     SEMINAR IN THE HISTORY OF ETHICS      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51591) (Repeatable a maximum of 2 times) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues from traditions in the history of ethics.

Prerequisite: at least of of PHIL 31001 or 31002 or 31003 or 31004 or 31005 or 31006 or 31010 or 31020.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 49995     SPECIAL TOPICS      2,3 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit when topic varies)

Prerequisite: special approval.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 2-3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 49996     INDIVIDUAL INVESTIGATION      1-3 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit with departmental approval prior to registration)

Prerequisite: departmental special approval prior to registration.

Schedule Type: Individual Investigation

Contact Hours: 1-3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter-IP

PHIL 49999     SENIOR HONORS PROJECT (ELR)      2,3 Credit Hours

(Repeated registration permitted with departmental approval prior to registration) Thesis or other independent study or creative project.

Prerequisite: Departmental permission before registration.

Schedule Type: Senior Project/Honors Thesis

Contact Hours: 2-3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter-IP

Attributes: Experiential Learning Requirement

PHIL 50005     HEALTH CARE ETHICS      3 Credit Hours

Ethical problems in health care critically assessed and consideration of how these specific ethical problems illuminate the ethical enterprise.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 50093     VARIABLE TITLE WORKSHOP IN PHILOSOPHY      1-6 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Workshop

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory

PHIL 51010     PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41010) Philosophical examination of issues and problems presented by various writers in philosophy of religion.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51020     SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41020) Critical examination of classical and contemporary philosophical theories of the nature of society, and the state as political system that best represents a well-organized society. Topics may include the nature, existence, and justification of the state, the issue of political obligation, theories of anarchism, utopia, democracy, liberalism, communitarianism, citizenship, and patriotism, and examination of the nature of the social and political values or notions of rights, equality, and liberty.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51025     PHILOSOPHY OF LAW      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41025) Critical examination of the nature, features, foundation, and function of law. Topics may include the debate between natural law theory and legal positivism, with respect to whether law and moral are necessarily connected, as well as the nature of judicial decision, constitution interpretation, the basis and elements of criminal, civil law (contract, tort) law, the grounds for obeying or disobeying bad laws, and analysis of some supreme court cases which raise philosophical issues about the nature and function of law.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51030     ETHICAL THEORY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41030) In this course, students will explore developments in the dominant normative theories of 20th and 21st century Anglo-American ethics, including consequentialism, deontology, virtue ethics, ethics of care, and varieties of contract theory.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51035     PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41035) What is science? What are its distinctive aims and methods, and how do they bolster the epistemic authority of scientific theories? Do sociological, historical, and cultural factors play a major role in the advancement of scientific thought? These questions, and others like them, define the philosophy of science - a branch of philosophy that deals with the metaphysical, epistemological, and normative issues that arise in the study of scientific practice.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51036     PHILOSOPHY OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41036) In this course, students focus on issues at the interface of philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. These fields, which comprise contemporary cognitive science, present the philosopher with an opportunity to clarify foundational concepts, such as computation, innateness, language, perception, and learning. Ultimately, the goal of the course is to understand various proposals about how neural computation could amount to human intelligence and consciousness.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51037     RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41037) An investigation of the work of the most important European philosophers of the 15th-17th centuries, with a particular emphasis on the interrelation between philosophy and science in their thought, and on the influence of Greek philosophy on the intellectual life of the time.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51038     INTERMEDIATE LOGIC      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41038; Cross-listed with CS 41038 and MATH 41038 and MATH 51038) A detailed, systematic study of symbolic logic for philosophy majors, mathematics majors, computer science majors, and anyone else interested in advanced study in logic. The aim of the course is twofold: first, to develop a facility in understanding and using symbolic logic for various purposes, and second, to understand and appreciate symbolic logic as an area of study in itself. Topics include the distinction between syntactic, object-level proofs and semantic, meta-level proofs, the distinction between axiomatic systems and natural deduction systems of object-level proofs, various systems of modal logic, and some non-classical logics.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51040     EPISTEMOLOGY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41040) What is the difference between merely believing something to be the case and knowing it to be the case? In this course students examine various theories designed to answer this question and evaluate their respective strengths and weaknesses. The course will cover the Gettier problem that questions the traditional definition of knowledge as justified true belief, the debate between foundationalism and coherentism, the debate between internalism and externalism about justification, naturalized epistemology, and virtue epistemology.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51042     METAPHYSICS      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41042) Covers several topics in contemporary analytic metaphysics. Topics may include existence, identity, things and their persistence over time, the nature of modalities and possible worlds, and the relationship between material parts and wholes.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51045     METALOGIC      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41045; Cross-listed with CS 41045 and CS 51045 and MATH 41045 and MATH 51045) A detailed, systematic study of metalogic for philosophy majors, mathematics majors, computer science majors, and anyone else interested in advanced study in logic. Topics include the soundness and completeness of the propositional and predicate calculi, the decidablility of propositional calculus, the undecidability of predicate calculus, Gödel’s incompleteness proof for languages capable of expressing arithmetic, the co-extensionality of the set of general recursive functions, abacus computable functions, and Turing computable functions, and the philosophical motivations for the ChurchTuring Thesis that all computable functions are Turing computable.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51048     METAETHICS      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41048) Metaethics is the study of the nature and justification of moral judgments, as distinct from ethics, which aims to articulate principles, criteria, or alternative approaches to understanding and achieving goodness and right action. Metaethics examines the concepts, ontology, psychology, and modes of justification employed within ethics. This course will explore recent developments about such questions as: which, if any, ethical judgments can be true or false; whether we can know true ethical statements; and to what kinds of properties, if any, ethical judgments and beliefs refer.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51050     ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41050) Focuses on the history and continued evolution of analytic philosophy. Readings include works by philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, Schlick, Carnap, Ryle, Austin, Strawson, Grice, Quine, Davidson, Kripke, Putnam, and others. The aim of the course is (i) to understand the theses and themes that commonly arise in analytic philosophy, their philosophical motivations, and the problems they face, and (ii) to become familiar with the methodologies used by analytic philosophers including (but not limited to) logical analysis, appeals to ordinary language, the use of thought experiments, and the use of possible world semantics.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51055     PHENOMENOLOGY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41055) In-depth study of the phenomenological movement in twentieth-century philosophy, from its origin in the thought of Edmund Husserl and his contemporaries, through such canonical thinkers as Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, to various contemporary developments. Substantial time is also devoted to considering applications of phenomenology to various disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and arts. This is in keeping with the overall focus in this seminar on phenomenology not only as a philosophical school, but also as a methodology with broad and diverse applications.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51060     PRAGMATISM      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41060) As America’ s distinctive “home-grown” philosophy, pragmatism embodies the values of action, problem-solving, and consensus-building within a pluralistic society. The core of this course examines the seminal works of the classical American pragmatists: Peirce, James, and Dewey. Special attention will be devoted to a phenomenology of experience that undercuts the dualisms of mind and matter, subject and object, self and world.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51065     PLATO      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 51065) Detailed examination of selected platonic dialogues, with some attention to Plato's development and dismissal of certain pre-Socratic (and Socratic) themes.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51070     ARISTOTLE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41070) Detailed examination of selected works of Aristotle, with some attention given to Aristotle's development and dismissal of certain pre-Socratic and Platonic themes.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51076     CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41076) Investigation of some figure, issue or theme in continental philosophy from Descartes to present.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51080     PHILOSOPHY AND ART IN THE MODERN AGE      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41080) Exploring, with emphasis, on the modern age philosophical conceptions of art in their interplays with, especially, practicing artists' attitudes toward theory.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51091     SEMINAR IN WORLD PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41091) (Repeatable for a maximum of 3 credit hours) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues from traditions outside the Western canon.

Prerequisite: graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51491     SEMINAR IN ASIAN PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41491) (Repeatable for a maximum of 2 times) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues from traditions in Asian philosophy.

Prerequisite: graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 51591     SEMINAR IN THE HISTORY OF ETHICS      3 Credit Hours

(Slashed with PHIL 41591) (Repeatable twice for credit) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues from traditions in the history of ethics.

Prerequisite: graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 59995     SPECIAL TOPICS      3 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit) When content varies, may be repeated for credit.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 59996     INDIVIDUAL INVESTIGATION      1-3 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit with department approval)

Prerequisite: Special approval and graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Individual Investigation

Contact Hours: 1-3 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP

PHIL 60191     GRADUATE SEMINAR      3 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit) Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more philosophical figures or one or more philosophical issues.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Seminar

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 60201     SEMINAR:HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY      3 Credit Hours

Intensive primary-source reading and critical appreciation of the significant works of one or more historical philosophers (other than Plato and Aristotle) or one or more historical philosophical issues.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 61000     RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH      1 Credit Hour

(Cross-listed with BMS 61000 and BMS 71000) Introduction into professional and ethical conduct of research. Topics include codes and laws governing research, identification of scientific misconduct, plagiarism, authorship and intellectual properties, ethical animal and human research.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 1 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 61050     PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE      3 Credit Hours

Critical examination of nature and function of language especially in relation to mental function and development.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 61055     SEMEIOTICS      3 Credit Hours

(Cross-listed with MCLS 60020) An introduction to contemporary theories of semeiotics and to the application of those theories to linguistics, literature, translation and technology.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 61056     HERMENEUTICS      3 Credit Hours

Critical appreciation of the theories and practices of interpretation comprehended according to certain classical, current and emergent philosophic styles and traditions.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 61085     METAETHICS      3 Credit Hours

Examination of the conceptions, presuppositions and value judgments of ethical theories.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 69194     COLLEGE TEACHING OF PHILOSOPHY      1 Credit Hour

(Repeatable for credit) Discussion, critique and development of concepts to guide the teaching of philosophy including concepts of procedures and tactics for planning, pacing, presenting, representing and reviewing philosophic texts figures and issues.

Prerequisite: graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 1 lecture

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP

PHIL 69198     FIRST YEAR PAPER      1 Credit Hour

Research paper for graduate students conducted under direction of the advisory group.

Prerequisite: graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Research

Contact Hours: 1 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP

PHIL 69199     THESIS I      2-6 Credit Hours

Thesis students must register for a total of 6 hours, 2 to 6 hours in a single semester distributed over several semesters if desired.

Prerequisite: Departmental special approval before registration and graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Masters Thesis

Contact Hours: 2-6 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP

PHIL 69299     THESIS II      2 Credit Hours

Thesis students must continue registration each semester until all degree requirements are met.

Prerequisite: PHIL 69199 and graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Masters Thesis

Contact Hours: 3 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP

PHIL 69995     SPECIAL TOPICS      3 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit) Selected topics in Philosophy.

Prerequisite: Special approval and graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Lecture

Contact Hours: 3 lecture

Grade Mode: Standard Letter

PHIL 69997     COLLOQUIUM      1 Credit Hour

(Repeatable for credit) Student, faculty and invited guests participate in conference-like contexts to present and discuss issues of current philosophic interest.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Colloquium

Contact Hours: 1 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP

PHIL 69998     RESEARCH      1-15 Credit Hours

(Repeatable for credit) Research or individual investigation for master's level graduate students. Credits earned may be applied toward meeting degree requirements.

Prerequisite: Special approval and graduate standing.

Schedule Type: Research

Contact Hours: 1-15 other

Grade Mode: Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory-IP